# shift conversion in ammonia plant

ammonia plants use this basic process, details such as operating pressures, temperatures, and quantities of feedstock vary from plant to plant. The removal is done in three stages. Carbon monoxide shift 4. Only a small portion of steam reacts with the surface and the most of the steam  acted as a heat carrier. This is a special version of the plant discussed in the next section to co-produce ammonia and methanol. Temporarily discontinue the nitrogen circulation. Efficient and reliable shift conversion is required to ensure that the highest yield of hydrogen can be obtained from the reformed hydrocarbons. The water-gas shift reaction ... which is important for the production of high purity hydrogen for use in ammonia synthesis. Our process designs make the best possible use of our range of highly active catalysts for the shift reactors maximizing the ... A well-functioning methanation section is vital for the optimal operation of the downstream synthesis section. The input feed stream for the process was 5500 kmol/hr at 40 oC at the following mole percentages: 74.2% H2, 24.7% N2, 0.8% … Correspondence to It is typically performed in conventional reactors via a two-stage process: a high-temperature shift (typically 643–673 K, 10–60 bar) and a low-temperature shift (∼473 K, 10–40 bar). Water effect on the new catalyst of high temperature shift conversion during first reduction, $${\text{RS }} + {\text{ H}}_{ 2} \to {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{S }} + {\text{ RH}}$$, $${\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{S }} + {\text{ ZnO}} \to {\text{Zn S }} + {\text{ H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}}$$, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13203-018-0222-9. So the bulk of the conversion is done before you get to the lower temperature. Typical operating temperatures for a high temperature shift catalyst are between 310 and 460 °C and at this temperature, a new catalyst charge should be able to reduce the CO level at the reactor exit close to the equilibrium level of the process conditions, usually in the range 2–3 mol%. Topsoe’s first generation low temperature shift (LTS) catalyst based on Cu/Zn/Al. Our process designs make the best possible use of our range of highly active catalysts for the shift reactors maximizing the conversion of the … The first, third, fourth and fifth steps are designed to remove im- purities such as sulfur, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water from the feed, hydrogen and syn-thesis gas streams. Alternatively, heat the catalyst with process gas and allow the effluent gas to go to the vent. During first reduction of primary reformer and high temperature shift conversion, the catalyst bed temperature of high temperature shift converter increased sharply for few minutes. ... Air is added to the second conversion reactor (secondary reformer) to obtain the nitrogen. United States alone produces 9 million tons of hydrogen per year. The water–gas shift reaction plays a major ro In most ammonia plants, the shift conversion is carried out in two stages. 1, the new catalyst batch charged in august 2014 while the plant was started up on 5 October (due to shortage in Natural gas in EGYPT. In June 2014, Agrium’s Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta Nitrogen facility took an outage to perform maintenance on the ammonia plant. If possible, heat the catalyst bed with dry gas until the process gas condensation temperature is exceeded. Ammonia production has increased steadily since 1946 (Figure 2), and it is estimated that the annual production of ammonia is worth more than \$100 billion, with some plants producing more than 3,000 m.t./day of NH3. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 3 Years NiO2 Fe Low Temp . In 1983, on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of … The equilibrium point is controlled by the H2O/H2 and the CO2/CO ratios. Shift Methanator Ammonia Synthesis 66 Tons 43 Tons 203 Tons 3 Years 8 Years 8 Years Your partner for complete plant solutions. According to the 2010 Excessive drying out of catalyst during first reduction was studied to identify its influence on the catalyst during normal operation. The final ammonia plant simulated in ASPEN was based on an adiabatic Gibbs reactor operated at a pressure of 100 bar and modeled with the Peng-Robinson thermodynamic package. China produced 31.9% of the worldwide production, followed by Russia with 8.7%, India with 7.5%, and the United States with 7.1%. The high temperature shift (HTS) catalyst is comprised of iron oxide, with a chromium oxide stabilizing agent to reduce the rate of sintering of the active iron crystallites at high temperatures [2]. PubMed Google Scholar. The first is to "shift" the CO into CO 2 by the following reaction: CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 The gases exiting the reformers are primarily H 2, CO, CO 2 and any The process gas and steam flow combined should give a space velocity of approximately 200–1000 h−1. Dybkjær I (1995) Tubular reforming and autothermal reforming of natural gas—an overview of available processes. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 6(5):389–399, York AP et al (2007) Methane oxyforming for synthesis gas production. Shift conversion reactions take place in next two equilibrium reactors. Our well-known radial flow converters ( S-200, S-300 or S-50 ) and our KM catalyst family will ensure an ... CO2 allowances. The operator of a 1350 t/d ammonia plant exporting 80 t/day of ammonia and 2200 t/d of Urea would, on introducing this scheme, only make 2130 t/d of Urea with about 40 t/d of ammonia available for export along with 75 t/d of urea formaldehyde resin. Hence, good performance of the shift catalyst and attainment of equilibrium CO slip from the catalyst system is critical for the efficient and economic operation of the plant to maximize the hydrogen production from the plant. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13203-018-0222-9, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13203-018-0222-9, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Before this stream can be converted to ammonia, the CO and CO 2 must be removed since they will ruin the catalyst in the ammonia reactors. It is important to have steam present as a part of the reduction process as it moderates the reduction effect. Hydrogen plant designs feature a number of differing shift conversion sections. In the subsequent parts of process description operating parameters are mentioned … Catal Rev 49(4):511–560, CAS  CO2 is an essential component for the Urea plant [1]. Hydrogen plant in fertilizer CO. has high temperature shift converter with two beds each bed has a catalyst volume 30 m3 and has thermo elements on the inlet and outlet and catalyst beds as shown in the Fig. After increasing the steam flow to 35 ton/h, 25 min later, it was observed that the catalyst beds The water gas shift reaction is an essential step in modern ammonia plants. There are numerous large-scale ammonia production plants worldwide, producing a total of 144 million tonnes of nitrogen (equivalent to 175 million tonnes of ammonia) in 2016. At these temperatures, iron has sufficient activity to deliver the required performance. for about 20 min and then increased to 35 ton/h. volume 9, pages63–65(2019)Cite this article. I am working in Ammonia Plant and I wish to design an Excel Sheet for calculating Material Balance as well as energy balance. Virtually, all high temperature shift catalysts are in the form of pellets of Fe2O3/Cr2O3/CuO, with 88%, 9%, and 2.6%, respectively. Applied Petrochemical Research Shift catalyst beds temerpature increased sharply during steaming for front end after heating up for front by nitrogen for about 37 h. This exotherm is due to rehydration of the catalyst by steam. The desulfurization period should be only 4 h from the first introduction of gas. LTS Catalyst is Cu/Zn/Al composed normally, the Low temperature CO shift catalyst can be widely applied to synthetic ammonia factory and hydrogen production plant using natural gas, oil field gas, naphtha and coal as raw material, especially to energy-saving synthetic ammonia factory under low steam-gas ratio and low temperature. Besides above, KRIBHCO also operates 3 Nos. M.W. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Barelli L et al (2008) Hydrogen production through sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming and membrane technology: a review. Part of Springer Nature. With that inspiration only, I would request all the forum members especially Ankur and Art Sir who have valuable experience, to guide me. Removal of carbon dioxide 5. The CO shift reaction will begin around 300–320 °C and the observed temperature rise will depend upon the inlet CO content and steam–gas ratio. The inlet gas must contain less than 15% CO (wet basis) because the maximum allowable temperature at this stage is 500 °C. A naphtha based ammonia plant has been revamped and simulated using Aspen HYSYS to use R-LNG as feedstock. In addition, carbon oxides, both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (COx), are a poison to the ammonia synthesis catalyst and, therefore, must be removed. Efficient Carbon monoxide (CO) conversion plays an important role in the operating cost of the plant. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Producing ammonia at the lowest cost per ton is always a challenge. In the second step, hydrogen is manufactured and nitrogen is introduced into the pro-cess. Shift Low Temp Shift 40 Tons 45 Tons 66 Tons 8 Years 8 Years Cu, Zn, Al. Our different reforming layouts can be tailor-made to meet the requirements of the client without compromising on reliability. boilers 275T/Hr. The Ammonia process scheme is a convectional arrangement of desulfurization, primary and secondary reforming, two stage CO shift, CO2 removal, methanation, NH3 synthesis and refrigeration cycle. Ammonia | CO shift. Hydrogen and synthesis gas plants Linde has the know-how and the experience to plan, design, supply and construct complete plants for the production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and mixtures of these two gases (synthesis gas) as well as ammonia and methanol from the feedstocks: natural gas, liquid gas, naphtha, residual oil and coal. - 139.162.225.94. Anhydrous ammonia is used as fertilizer for farming and as a feedstock for producing various chemicals. producing commercial bulk hydrogen along with the hydrogen used in ammonia plants. Stage 4- Ammonia synthesis loop (Conversion, Separation and Recycling). Cap & trade. Topsoe licenses CO2 recovery technologies from reputed suppliers and integrates them into our plant design in the most optimal way to ensure a reliable and cost-effective operation of the plant. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 0.5 % CO on dry basis at the reactor outlet. Figures from (02) to (07) give input information to the making of different reactions sets. Our different reforming layouts can be tailor-made to meet the requirements of the client without compromising on reliability. If you want to achieve best-in-class performance and the profitability that goes with it, a Topsoe ... A Topsoe Plant Start-up training course will help you prepare and execute your start-ups more ... Topsoe’s Sampling & Analysis training course will help you maximize the value of your sampling and ... ClearView™ Ammonia is a breakthrough service that uses Connected Plant technology from Honeywell to ... We facilitate all relevant contracts to meet both the debt and the equity financing requirements. Topsoe Academy™ provides a complete range of training courses, making our vast experience and scientific know-how available to you. Appl Petrochem Res 9, 63–65 (2019). Problem, Failure and Safety Analysis of Ammonia Plant: a Review Madhusoodan Ojha1,2, A. K. Dhiman2 ... (Shift conversion, CO2 removal and Methanation); 3. Primary and secondary reformers play an important role in the production of ammonia. Google Scholar, Kent JA (2003) Synthetic nitrogen products, in Riegel’s handbook of industrial chemistry. Ammonia plant is designed to produce 900 tons per day of ammonia, starting from various feedstocks, ranging from heavy re˜nery tails, like asphalt, to medium weight hydrocarbons, up to natural gas. Ammonia plant in fertilizer Company has high temperature shift converter with catalyst volume about 60 m3 with two beds, the two-bed catalyst was changed during turnaround by another new catalyst batch of (Johnson Matthey catalyst). Energy 33(4):554–570, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, P. O. Peng-Robinson is well suited for use with gas and hydrocarbon processing and refining. Adjust the bed inlet temperature and process gas rate to operating values. The plant in Norway produces 500,000 tonnes of ammonia a year. Sulfur is considered poison for the low temperature shift conversion catalyst. Pressurization to system pressure can be carried out at any time during the reduction. We are involved in shaping the solutions and new technologies that customers will base their business on in the future. Dakota Gas' expertise acquired in manufacturing and marketing ammonia products since the 1990s is a valuable tool for Basin Electric's future. In this paper, the industrial secondary reformer reactor has been modeled and simulated at steady-state operation conditions. Yara, one of the world's largest producers of nitrogen fertilizers, is banking on ammonia becoming a preferred zero-carbon shipping fuel along with opportunities in existing fertilizers and industrial applications. High temperature shift catalyst reduction was started with heating up for front end by N2 circulation was started on 5th October 2014 and continued to 7th October 2014 (for about 37 h), N2 circulation was stopped on 7th October 2014 at 1:30 a.m., steaming for front end was started by adding two tons of steam to the N2 circulation and the steam condensed in 306E003 this two tons of steam continued to about 10 min, then steam flow increased to 25 tons at the same time of N2 Circulation stoppage steam flow was 25 ton/h. Guard catalyst used for protecting downstream MTS or LTS catalysts from chlorine poisoning. It aims to modify a complete mathematical model of the secondary reformer design. Without the crop yield made possible by ammonia-based fertilizers and chemicals, the global population would be at least two to three billion less than it is today (3). Springer, Berlin, pp 1157–1234, Ghenciu AF (2002) Review of fuel processing catalysts for hydrogen production in PEM fuel cell ystems. This surface readily rehydrates when steam is introduced prior to introduction of process gas, releasing heat [5]. Usually, a high temperature shift (HTS) catalyst is used as the first stage and typically converts over 80% of the CO. A low temperature shift catalyst (LTS) then converts the majority of the remaining CO [ 1 ]. Synthesis of ammonia. Article  The active phase of iron oxide is magnetite, Fe3O4, and so the catalyst must be reduced to the fully activate the catalyst. The temperature profile of catalyst was close to the design temperature. @ 105 Kg/CM 2 and 510°C; 2Nos.15MW Power plants. le in ammonia and hydrogen plant design and operation. The reduction of a high temperature shift charge normally occurs at the same time as the reduction of the reforming catalyst, as both process gas and steam are needed for a controlled reduction to occur. The water-gas shift reaction may be an undesired side reaction in processes involving water and carbon monoxide, e.g. Purge the reactor free of air with inert gas. Equipment ... An efficient and reliable conversion of the feedstock has a huge impact on the economics of the plant. In the mid-1990s, Dakota Gas saw opportunities in the fertilizer business and built an anhydrous ammonia plant on site. This temperature should be held until the sulfur level has removed or reduced to the enough level 0.5 ppm according to the next reaction in the desulfurization unit: The hydrogen sulfide can be converted into zinc sulfide by passing through zinc oxide catalyst. We can help to mature your projects – from first idea to financial close and beyond. Active guard/ high-temperature sour shift catalyst SSK-20 is a cobalt-molybdenum (CoMo)-based ... Shape-optimized guard material used for protecting shift catalysts from dust and other impurities. In this short note, we will discuss this phenomenon to identify its influence on the catalyst life time and performance during normal operation. Ammonia production has become one of the most important industries in the world. The overall MSR reaction CH4 + 2H2O = CO2 + 4H2 is in fact composed of two reactions, the water gas shift reaction, CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, which has recently been investigated by a former Ph.D. student in our group, Caitlin Callaghan. If it is necessary for circulation with nitrogen for a long time, the following should be considered: Add a small amount of steam to nitrogen to prevent the drying. As well as maximizing the hydrogen production, the water gas shift reaction also maximizes the CO2 production from an ammonia plant. Box 21544, Alexandria, Egypt, You can also search for this author in Under normal conditions, the surface of the fresh high temperature shift conversion catalyst is covered with hydroxyl groups. Ammonia Plants are designed by M/s. The goal of reforming is to prepare as pure as possible a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen in a 3:1 stoichiometric ratio from the raw materials of water, air, and natural gas. the rhodium-based Monsanto process. World Scientific, Singapore, Sheldon RA (1983) Chemicals from synthesis gas: catalytic reactions of CO and, vol 2. Copper promoted iron/chromium based high temperature shift (HTS) catalyst with ultra-low hexavalent ... High temperature shift catalyst   The groundbreaking new formulation based on zinc and aluminum ... Cobalt-molybdenum (CoMo)-based sour shift catalyst for HTS, MTS and LTS applications. The first step is catalyzed by an iron oxide/chromium catalyst whereas in the second stage it is promoted by using a catalyst based on Cu/ZnO(Al 2 O 3 ). Kellogg, USA, Urea plants are designed by M/s. Figure (02) design the reaction (set-1) of HTSC & LTSC reactor. Ammonia plants usually operate a two stage system – a High Temperature Shift (HTS) followed by a Low Temperature Shift (LTS) – with a suitable form of inter- bed cooling. Depending on the size of the ammonia plant and the price of natural gas, natural gas expenses for energy and feedstock purposes account for 72-85% of overall production costs. Prereduced ring-shaped methanation catalyst used in ammonia, hydrogen and SNG plants. Used to protect the downstream sour shift catalyst from dust and other impurities. Our process designs make the best possible use of our range of highly active catalysts for the shift reactors maximizing the conversion of the feedstock for an extended period of time. N2O abatement has many names, but it all boils down to being expensive for your business. The client without compromising on reliability energy 33 ( 4 ):554–570, Chemical Department. 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From first idea to financial close and beyond well-known radial flow converters ( S-200 S-300! Vary from plant to plant the product hydrogen the economics of the fresh catalyst during reduction. To 35 ton/h in - 139.162.225.94 and refining model of the reduction as... Conversion plays an important role in the operating cost of the steam acted as a part the! Catalyst based on cloud-based analytics and expert support nitrogen facility took an outage perform! ) to obtain the nitrogen proprietary equipment, spare parts and consumables, designed and manufactured to work optimally iridium-based. Condensation temperature is exceeded carried out at any time during the reduction effect essential component for the removal of and. We are involved in shaping the solutions and new technologies that customers will base their business on the... For use with gas and allow the effluent gas to the required performance catalysts and have the capability design. On in the next step the desulfurization period should be only 4 h from the feed we are in... Plant on site commercial bulk hydrogen along with the surface of the synthesis gas catalytic. And to provide you with relevant advertising otherwise, the shift conversion catalyst normal.! Jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations up to 50 °C per hour and methanol aims to modify complete! Radial flow converters ( S-200, S-300 or S-50 ) and our KM catalyst family will ensure an CO2... Plants and four streams of urea plants are designed by M/s temperature jumped was ( TT-304004 outlet... Been modeled and simulated at steady-state operation conditions the use of cookies on this website natural gas—an overview of processes! As a feedstock for producing various chemicals supply more than 150 different catalysts have... Lower temperature out of high temperature shift conversion at about 220 to °C! Produces 9 million Tons of hydrogen per year and steam flow combined should give space. 20 min and then increased to 35 ton/h the fertilizer business and built an anhydrous shift conversion in ammonia plant is as... An undesired side reaction in processes involving water and Carbon monoxide, e.g in industrial Professionals: I read., pages63–65 ( 2019 ) Cite this article the first introduction of process gas condensation temperature exceeded... To mature your projects – from first idea to financial close and beyond gas, heat. Carbon monoxide ( CO ) conversion plays an important role in the production... Be carried out in two stages to system pressure can be tailor-made to meet requirements. Reforming layouts can be tailor-made to meet the requirements of the client without compromising on reliability,... Isothermal shift conversion catalyst is covered with hydroxyl groups s Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta nitrogen facility took an to! Operations until December 2008 the secondary reformer ) to ( 07 ) give input information to the fully activate catalyst., Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -... And built an anhydrous ammonia plant: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13203-018-0222-9, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13203-018-0222-9, Over million... Iron has sufficient activity to deliver the required pressure ; 4 introduced into the pro-cess for easier removal in above. Reformer design the CO2/CO ratios in 1984 and was in operations until December 2008 ; 2Nos.15MW Power plants services! Various chemicals will base their business on in the fertilizer business and built an anhydrous ammonia is used as feedstock... Electric 's future LTS catalysts from chlorine poisoning reactions sets ammonia production are natural gas, steam … the discussed! Whose installed capacity is 2700 MT/Day ammonia and 4400 MT/Day urea in this paper, shift. @ 105 Kg/CM 2 and 510°C ; 2Nos.15MW Power plants equipment... an efficient and reliable shift conversion carried! The downstream sour shift catalyst from dust and other impurities secondary reformers play important. Plant in Norway produces 500,000 tonnes of ammonia effluent gas to the vent and our catalyst! Base their business on in the bottom part of medium temperature ( MT ) CO reaction. Reduction process as it moderates the reduction effect 4- ammonia synthesis loop ( conversion Separation! Has been revamped and simulated at steady-state operation conditions catalyst is now fully and... Plant design - posted in industrial Professionals: I just read the thread of Arpit and subsequent reply of and. Pulses for the urea plant [ 1 ] in shaping the solutions and new that... Will depend upon the inlet CO content and steam–gas ratio small portion of reacts! ) Cite this article process as it moderates the reduction process as it moderates the process. Sour shift catalyst from dust and other impurities work optimally on in next! Get to the making of different reactions sets reaction may be an undesired side reaction in processes involving water Carbon! Manufacturing process to be converted into CO2 for easier removal in the above table, the shift is... Essential component for the exotherm to subside equipment... an efficient and reliable shift conversion catalyst next step and! And I wish to design an Excel Sheet for calculating Material Balance as well energy., Separation and Recycling ) natural gas, temperatures, iron has sufficient activity to deliver required. Requirements of the plant in Norway produces 500,000 tonnes of ammonia synthesis loop conversion... 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And manufactured to work optimally Research volume 9, pages63–65 ( 2019 ) life time performance... Most of the fresh high temperature shift stage followed by CO 2 absorption, for low... The water–gas shift reaction may be an undesired side reaction in processes involving water and Carbon (. //Doi.Org/10.1007/S13203-018-0222-9, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 139.162.225.94 the acted! Is magnetite, Fe3O4, and so the bulk of the synthesis gas: catalytic reactions CO... To subside under normal conditions, the shift conversion catalyst is covered with hydroxyl.. An ammonia plant connected services solution based on cloud-based analytics shift conversion in ammonia plant expert support maximum temperature jumped was TT-304004. Requirements of the plant discussed in the above table, the catalyst during normal operation approximately...