compare trading in the han dynasty and rome

This imperial comeback was, however, short-lived in both cases. In northern and southern China, a series of (barbarian in the north, native in the south) dynasties succeeded one another in quick succession. A similar development took place in the Roman Empire. Sea trade was less expensive than land trade and the fact that Rome was more of a naval empire than the Han Dynasty meant that commerce played a greater role in the Roman economy. As it lost territories to barbarians, it also lost income from those provinces and the ability to recruit troops to defend the remaining territories of the Empire. Economy of the Han dynasty – Wikipedia The Han dynasty (206 BC – … Ocean exchange was more affordable than land exchange and the way that Rome was to a greater degree a maritime domain than the Han Administration implied that trade assumed a more prominent job in the Roman economy. The Western Empire came to be dominated by military officers who subverted the office of Emperor and were often of barbarian origins. Once again, the two parts of the Empire clashed due to the ambitions of Stilicho, magister militum of the West. In the case of China, it was the Xiongnu, a confederation of nomadic steppe peoples. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. You can then sort out the importance of work-related experiences to design lessons. The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire made in the sixth century an ultimately unsuccessful attempt at reuniting the Roman World. During the beginning of the Han dynasty, the economy was badly damaged due to the policies of the former dynasty. (2016, Aug 24). County-level governance had a similar structure. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/han-dynasty-vs-roman-empire/. The Jin capitals of Luoyang and Chang’an were captured and the Jin remnants retreated to the South. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were two grand empires that rose out of preexisting territories and provided relative peace over wide areas. The Roman Empire is thought to be the primary foundation of Western culture and modes of government. While it is true that the Roman Empire wasn’t as heavily bureaucratized as the Han Dynasty, the Roman Empire did have a bureaucracy even in this early imperial period that tends to be underestimated; the officials, as stated above, had a large number of slaves who worked informally in administrative jobs and as such are not usually counted officially. Religion and Phil. The Roman and Han Empires were vast realms kept under control by vast state machinery (for the standards of the age) and ruling over a large part of their respective ecumene. Below the Emperor were the provinces. The early Roman culture thrived on agriculture, but then the later Empire thrived more on trade. This was a huge similarity between these cultures. Charlemagne in 800 restored the Western Roman Empire. The Inner Court was also filled with a large number of officials who had no administrative duties but held honorific titles. The rise of the Roman Republic can in some ways be compared to the rise of the Qin state to prominence. Historians attribute the Han Dynasty’s rise to power has been resulted from the adoption of legalism as the empire’s system of governance. The economy during the Han dynasty was defined by population growth, growth of industries as well as trade and nationalization. The bureaucratic model of the Han Dynasty was modeled after that of the Western Zhou (1045–771 BC) and Qin (221–206 BC) Dynasties. Despite the success of Roman arms and the fact that new provinces were not unprofitable, the Empire declined for several reasons: Thus in the seventh century, the Empire almost collapsed as it lost most of the Balkans to the Slavs and Syria, Levant, Egypt and North Africa to the Arabs. The Outer Court was headed by three excellencies (san gong): chancellor, supreme commandant and imperial counselor. The Romans also faced the Sassanid Dynasty that more than once defeated the Romans in battle and even captured Emperor Valerian. They were responsible respectively for government administration, military affairs, and the censorial branch of the bureaucracy. How did rome and the Han Dynasty differ in expanding ? City authorities had to maintain order and extract revenue not only for the city itself but also from the countryside that was allocated to that city and where the majority of the population lived. The Essay on Han China Vs Imperial Rome Political. The emperor was connected with the government bodies via the Inner Courtand Outer Court. The early Roman culture thrived on agriculture, but then the later Empire thrived more on trade. The Wei state emerged as the most powerful of the three and came under the control of the Sima family that established the Jin Dynasty (266) that would reunify China by 280. 1 page, 391 words . Unlike their Eastern counterparts, Western emperors (especially in the fifth century) did not enjoy long reigns and this created instability and delegitimized the government and office of Emperor. The road network facilitated it and so did the Mediterranean, which made it easy to shuttle goods throughout the Empire through sea. The Jin Dynasty was able to foster a period of prosperity from 280 to 304 AD. How US Intelligence lured Japan to reveal its next attack after Pearl Harbor, How a Simple, Little Pencil Changed the World Forever. There exist similarities and disparities concerning the way both entities gained and lost their power. Eventually they were able to g… New inventions and the bloom of art also contributed to the increase in trading during that period. This research project compares the economic, ... ↑ Hopkins, Keith (1995/6): "Rome, Taxes, Rents, and Trade", Kodai, Vol. They also facilitated the monetization of the economy by producing massive amounts of coinage. The Roman Domain and the Han Line of magnificent China coincided with Parthia and Kushan, spreading over the mid-scope of Eurasia and northern Africa. Eventually, Aurelian, Diocletian and Constantine restored unity to the Roman world while the Jin Dynasty reunified China. Both the Han Dynasty and Imperial Rome were monarchies. To contrast the Eastern Roman Empire to its Western counterpart, the East had numerous advantages (economic, institutional and military) that allowed it to survive the fall of the West. The several centuries of success for Han China (202 BCE – 220 CE) and the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) pinpoint possibilities for comparison in the classical period. The family most closely related to the family. Alexander managed to conquer his way to what is today the western edges of Xinjiang province. His estimates are upward revisions from Hopkins, Keith (1980): "Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.– A.D. 400)", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. Their empire correlated with another empire whom were about five thousand miles away, in the Imperial Romans who lasted from 31 B.C.E to 476 C.E. The empire also faced internal problems as there was a succession of incompetent emperors who relied too much on court eunuchs and mismanaged the empire. C) The Han and the Romans both based governance of their provinces on state-trained scholar elites. He marched to the Sui capital in 617 and founded the Tang Dynasty after forcing the abdication of the last Sui Emperor, Yang You. Even though they were. The Franks were not powerful enough to conquer Byzantium and thus the division of the ecumene was retained. By Andrew Paul Stokes Beijing Union University 1|P a ge Andrew Paul Stokes June 5, 2011. 41–75. The crops were different in each region: olive oil in North Africa and Spain, wheat in Egypt and vineyards in Gaul. The Roman Empire and Han dynasty attract significant interests among historians. The decision by the court of establishing colonies of Chinese in the Western border regions foundered on the difficulties of maintaining agricultural communities in the arid west. This allowed the East to survive but greatly affected the West. Western Roman Empire | A map depicting the separate empires of Rome| Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase From Kingdom To Republic The Etruscans and Rome (Previous Wiki notes) There are. While the Sui founder Emperor Wen (581–604) was a capable ruler, his successor Emperor Yang spent too much money on vast infrastructure projects and pursued an expansion foreign policy, which most disastrously failed in Korea as his invasions were unsuccessful and led to a weakening of the central government and revolts. The early Roman culture thrived on agriculture, but then the later Empire thrived more on trade. Instead of using slave labor, Chinese landowners would use contracts and money to strike bargains with laborers. Although they restored unity, the pressure of barbarian invaders and internal infighting would cause the loss of the heartland of both Empires (Italy and the West in the case of Rome, northern China in the case of Jin). As such, it fared less well on its own, in contrast to the East. The man who reunified Rome was Emperor Aurelian (270–275). Finally, the Han introduced the first clear system of bureaucracy, in which the central government designated representatives in the provinces. It is said that Charlemagne was in negotiations with Empress Irene for a possible marriage agreement that would unite the two Empires. Compare And Contrast Imperial Rome And Han China. Imperial Rome was ended through attacks from Germanic tribes, while the Yellow Turban uprising led to the fall of the Han Dynasty in China. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. The Han Dynasty dominated Asia from the Korean. Compared to the Roman Emperor, the Han Emperor was much more passive and ritualistic. This may not be a huge difference, but Han had nothing to bound together different classes. The Roman organization of the economy was unprecedented for the Mediterranean world as it made much more extensive use of slave labor than past imperial regimes. In the first two centuries AD for Rome and from the second century BC to second century AD in China, the Roman and Han Empires focused on internal homogenization and slowed down their expansion. Unlike the legionaries of Rome, armies of barbarians and convicts had little loyalty to the state. These things made these civilizations grow and learn and sometimes fail, but they have set some of the basic rules for some civilizations today. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism.. The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire had a difference in their economic structures. Which of the following is an accurate comparison between the Han and Roman empires? Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. More continuity inside china. While China today remains a unified entity, the Roman world remains fractured among European nation-states and Arab nation-states in West Asia and North Africa. The Chinese Empire would survive as an institution up to 1911. Yang Jian (Emperor Wen) seized the throne from Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou in 581, establishing the Sui Dynasty. The first five were responsible for the daily life of the emperor and were usually filled by eunuchs. Rome loved silk which China manufactured and china loved other goods from Rome. Compare and Contrast Essay Roman Empire vs. Han Dynasty Bethany Corl HIEU 201-B11 September 29, 2014 Compare and Contrast Essay The Roman and Han empires flourished in culture, wealth, and technological advances at their pinnacle, leading not to future stability, but to greed, corruption, and ultimately their downfall. In the case of Rome, it was the Germanic tribes beyond the Rhine and Danube that caused the most problems. In China, the situation was different. Their geographical position favored a focus on military capability. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to citizens and another that applied to non-citizens. In the West, the Roman Empire was at the height of its power, surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and having complete control over the goods traded there. The Franks in the West, who during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire had established themselves in Gaul, were able to expand their holdings and under Charlemagne they united most of Western Europe. Rome and Han: A comparison of empires. Commanderies were headed by a grand governor (tai shou), who took charge of all the civilian and military affairs in his commandery as well as administering the criminal law. Location 2. Rome used the patron/client relationship to turn men into equals, because inequality of men in Rome was turned into a system of mutual benefits and obligations. He divided the Empire into two administrative parts that would allow it to better face the multiple enemies, increased the size of the military and expanded the imperial bureaucracy in order to collect the taxation necessary for the expanded military. The Emperors made use of freedmen for administrative duties, naming them to such offices as ab epistulis (in charge of correspondence), a libellis (in charge of petitions) and a rationibus (in charge of accounts). Next there was a similar trait in their economic structures. The richest Senators of the East had relatively modest riches and land compared to Western Senators. This is a minor difference, but all laws were made by the Han emperor while most in Rome were made by the Roman Senate. He was assisted by lower officials, such as clerks and assistants. Philosophy 7. Unlike the Three Kingdoms, however, the Roman central government was better able to face the crisis and eventually reasserted central control over the Empire. In the twilight of the Han Dynasty this army deteriorated as well, eventually becoming an army of barbarian recruits, convicts and poorly-trained conscripts), and the mass of conscripts that form the main base of the army (unlikely to be cohesive for long durations, relatively poorly trained, equipped, supplied and motivated compared to the Legion) raised at short notice. Agriculture 5. They can also help and American audience combine more familiar knowledge, usually about Rome, with an appreciation for less familiar classical … The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire are two very complex civilizations that thrived around the same time. The decline of the dynasty can be attributed to decisions made by Emperor Wu; he appointed many of his brothers and sons as Kings of individual provinces, weakening greatly the central government. The Pope justified this with the excuse that since a woman (Irene) was holding the throne in Constantinople, the Roman throne was vacant. The Han Dynasty, unlike the Romans, relied on free labor rather than slaves for agriculture. Andrew Paul Stokes June 5, 2011 Ming Dynasty Economy It’s growth and it’s decline. A model de novo; and the distances that can augment traditional historical research into what was sacri ced so that the prime requisite, understanding models and modelling: … Those challenges had effects on both Empires. 3. This meant there was a … Scholars The western-most of the warring states in China was the Qin which stretched roughly to where the city of Lanzhou in Gan… Although in the first and second centuries, for the most part, Emperors were able to pass power on to their successors peacefully, in the third century a multitude of emperors, rebels, and pretenders competed for the throne and civil wars shook the Empire. Major Differences Between Classical Athens and Han China Classical Athens and the Han Dynasty In China were two of the most famous and successful early clvlllzatlons. Each of the civilizations also had their differences. The cities themselves were ruled in the same manner as in antiquity, having an oligarchic administration and a semi-democratic facade. Studies in science education. The Inner Court was administered by two Outer Court ministries: the superintendent of the imperial clan and the privy treasurer. That system was highly successful at eventually defeating the Xiongnu but it created new problems for Han China. His successor, Emperor Hui, had to fight with regional princes in civil wars that further weakened Jin. The Empire lowered taxes and subsidized public works. The Inner Court had six masters: master of clothing, master of food, master of headgear, master of banquets, master of baths, and master of writing. A) The Han economy was based on agriculture, while Rome's was based on trade. This was different for Rome. Yet both failed to reunify the Roman world. Women socially in both the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire were treated like a During the eighth and ninth centuries, Byzantium was mired by internal conflict over the Christian icons (Iconoclast Emperors considered them a form of idolatry, putting them at odds with the Pope). Eventually, the Northern Zhou dynasty was able to reunify the north. This was the fact that both Han China and the Roman Empire were connected by the Silk Road and were big into trading. This never materialized since Empress Irene was overthrown in a palace coup that brought Nicephorus I to the throne. In addition to that, heavy taxes were … The Han Dynasty 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty China: A Comparison. and Empire 4. There was trade carried on between them (mainly along the Silk Road) but the Han Dynasty was situated in China while Rome was situated in the Mediterranean. At the head of this vast state machinery was the Emperor. The Han Line, in contrast to the Romans, depended on free work as opposed to slaves for agribusiness. Save time and let our verified experts help you. Justinian (527–565) sent capable generals (Belisarius, Liberius and Narses) to retake the territories of North Africa, Italy and parts of Spain. Both Rome and Qin were militaristic states. The Chancellor had beneath him thirteen bureaus (cao): West Bureau and East Bureau [both responsible for promotions and demotion of officials), Bureau of Imperial Household, Bureau of Memorials, Bureau of Litigation, Bureau of Communication and Standards, Bureau of Military Transportation, Bureau of Bandit Control, Bureau of Criminal Executions, Bureau of Soldiers, Bureau of Granaries, Bureau of Yellow Cabinet [maintenance of state records] and Bureau of Gold. Why is the Han Dynasty compared to the Roman Empire? The new dynasty initially ruled only Guanzhong while the northeast, the central plain, and the south were still under the control of rival warlords who had command over hundreds of thousands of troops. A new enemy emerged, this time from the West: the Qiang. This is known as “Uprising of the Five Barbarians” — “Five Barbarians throw China into disorder”. That unification of the Sui Dynasty was short-lived but set the stage for a more durable unification under the Tang Dynasty. Haven’t found the relevant content? This contributed to the collapse of the dynasty. After 48 Vitosha Boulevard, ground floor, 1000, Sofia, Bulgaria Bulgarian reg. In the East, it were palace eunuchs, civil officials and princesses that came to dominate and those groups had to rely on the office of Emperor. Eventually the Roman West fell under barbarian control while the Roman East managed to survive. Other than these trade routes, the Roman Empire and China had no connections. In 589, the Sui Dynasty took over the southern Chen Dynasty and restored unity in the Chinese ecumene. Once the danger of Xiongnu passed, the imperial court stopped paying subsidies to its barbarian allies and they turned into plunder. Roman agriculture was centered on large plantations called latifundia that were worked by hundreds of slaves. This accelerated the collapse of the central government that led to the division of China. These trade routes were virtually the only thing that connected the two empires together. The Han Dynasty extended its territorial reach to extend the Silk Road to gain access to raw materials and to extend trade into new region. The emperors continued a tradition of emphasizing their divine or semi-divine majesty. Both were in the western margin of the civilized ecumene (the Greek states and the eastern Chinese states respectively) and were viewed as semi-barbaric. Eventually they were able to gain hegemonic power over a large sector of the ecumene, Italy for Rome and Sichuan for Qin. can use them for free to gain inspiration and new creative ideas for their writing assignments. They would also have an entourage of freedmen and slaves. It must not be forgotten that at least until the third century, the Emperors maintained the facade of the Res Publica. The trade during the time of the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty were very similar. So when Rome was occupied on one front, it allowed enemies to take advantage of the situation. However, Constantine’s successors fought among themselves in civil wars. The Gallic Empire in the West and the Palmyrene Empire in the East emerged. China at that time was in her “Warring States” period and confined to the eastern seaboard. Methods of ruling in both china ( Han Dynasty ) and rome. However, it stood no chance of restoring Roman control over the ecumene. So, we have to make choices about what to study in the time we have. The master of writing was the emperor’s secretary. The West was less urbanized and rich than the Roman East. The Justinianic Plague (first reported in 541) killed hundreds of thousands of civilians, disrupted economic activities and had severe effects on both the economy and urban life. Hence the Pope turned to Charlemagne for assistance. The officials responsible for military affairs were civilian. They are easy to compare because they both faced challenges common to empires, including outside invasion, ruling over a diverse population, and ruling … The Han Empire comprised of 1587 county-level governments. They also had to do as men told them, and keep the home, raise the children especially boys. Crossing more than four centuries, the Han time frame is viewed as a brilliant age in Chinese history. The Han Dynasty, on the other hand, provided the basis for culture and government in China, one of the most powerful Eastern influences. Women socially in both the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire were treated like a child in the eyes of the law. While Theodosius the Great was able to once again restore a sense of stability and reunify the Empire, after his death in 395 the Empire was divided again in two. Whereas under the Sui unity was restored in the Chinese ecumene, neither Justinian nor the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne were able to achieve this in the West. This was different for Rome. The 7,000-mile Silk Road flourished during the Han dynasty, allowing trade between China and India. Obviously, differences in culture, tradition, and location caused them to be different in ways; but even though these empires did not really have contact with one another, there were many similarities. Han Dynasty Vs. Roman Empire. The breakdown of imperial order meant that provinces had to assume responsibility for their defense and this led to insurrections in the 260s and 270s that threatened the unity of the Empire. Thus the Roman Empire was divided in three, much like the Han Dynasty. The Franks were closer to Italy and proved that they could protect the Pope and intervene effectively in Italy. The Western equivalent would have been if Charlemagne had conquered Byzantium and restored unity over the Roman world. They also shared similarities in economic structures such as how they were both apart of the Silk Road. Size and . The Roman Empire relied a lot on cities for local governance. PhDessay is an educational resource where over 1,000,000 free essays are collected. The Roman and Han empires were different with respect to how each came … This can partly be compared to the southern Jin that managed to survive fall of northern China to barbarian tribes. It took five years of campaigning by the imperial princes Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin before the country was reunified. This was how Han thrived on agriculture for their economy more than trade. Mutual awareness remained low, and firm knowledge about each other wa… Culture. Han China was a dynasty that lasted from 206 B.C.E and lasted till 220 C.E. This was how Han thrived on agriculture for their economy more than trade. The Fall of Empires Rome Han China Objective Establishing Trade Civil War The Silk Road I will compare and contrast the civilization characteristics (PERSIA) that lead to the fall of the Roman and Han Empires by completing a Venn Diagram. Civil wars and internal instability (first with the usurpation of throne by Phocas and then with the civil war between Phocas and Heraclius) weakened the Empire and allowed its enemies to exploit its weakness (Slavs and Avars in Balkans and Persians in Middle East). These empires inched progressively closer in the course of the Roman expansion into the ancient Near East and simultaneous Han Chinese military incursions into Central Asia. For the next three centuries China would be under the control of an empire comparable with that of the Han Dynasty. This was a problem for the East too, but unlike their Eastern counterparts, the Western Romans were unable to get rid of the barbarians. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were two of the most powerful entities to rule their respective parts of the world. The governors, who were assisted by a quaestor (in public provinces) or a procurator (in imperial provinces), legates, military tribunes, centurions and informal employees (‘friends’). Comparing the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Answer to: Compare and contrast the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. The bureaucracy underwent many changes during the Han period, with some government agencies shrinking and other seeing their influence expanded. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty sprang up at around the same time. The Han line (Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàncháo) was the second supreme line of China (206 BC–220 Promotion), went before by the Qin administration (221–206 BC) and prevailing by the Three Realms time frame (220–280 Advertisement). Both the resurgent Roman Empire and the Jin Dynasty proved to be ephemeral. In the chart below discuss the most valuable similarities and differences between Han and Rome. Neither Byzantium nor Jin could reconquer the lost parts of the Empire (although, under Justinian, the Byzantines came pretty close to it). Both Empires eventually faced problems with barbarians invaders. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire used the silk trade routes, particularly over land. In fact, some historians have described it as a ‘federation of city-states’. Social . They also were too focused on the Arab onslaught and the Bulgar threat in the Balkans to aid the Pope and the imperial holdings in Italy that were under the threat of the Lombards. Ultimately, the central government lost control of the western frontier, as provincial governors began taking matters on their own hands and in effect created private armies. The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire had a difference in their economic structures. This was not only a similarity, but a huge connection between two great civilizations. To properly understand early Sino-Roman contact we have to look way back, to the time of Alexander the Great in ancient Greece. The Emperor, being in command of the armed forces and relying on them for his rule, was in effect a military dictator. In Rome the officials of the central administration may have been as high as 5000 during the Antonine times (96–180). Eventually, three kingdoms emerged; Wei, Shu Han and Wu. The free farmers were in large part self-sufficient and would produce goods that were in demand. The collapse of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE), which was the first great land-based empire in East Asia, came after a period of war, confusion, and tyrannical rule. Much like the Romans, the Han Dynasty also issued large quantities of coinage but since China lacked silver, bronze coins were the basis of the monetary economy. Agencies shrinking and other seeing their influence expanded the Empire clashed due to the increase in during... They turned into plunder it is said that Charlemagne was in her “ Warring States period... Survive but greatly affected the West: the superintendent of the world ) contact we to. This can partly be compared to the increase in trading during that period of civil wars insurrections. 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