who wrote fides et ratio

Neither suffering nor violent death could ever lead them to abandon the truth which they have discovered in the encounter with Christ. 102. Profoundly convinced that “whatever its source, truth is of the Holy Spirit” (omne verum a quocumque dicatur a Spiritu Sancto est) 50 Saint Thomas was impartial in his love of truth. My Venerable Brother Bishops, Health and the Apostolic Blessing! Philosophy is expected to rest content with more modest tasks such as the simple interpretation of facts or an enquiry into restricted fields of human knowing or its structures. 131. 80. "May their journey into wisdom, sure and final goal of all true knowledge, be freed of every hindrance by the intercession of the one who, in giving birth to the Truth and treasuring it in her heart, has shared it forever with all the world" (n. The intellectus fidei expounds this truth, not only in grasping the logical and conceptual structure of the propositions in which the Church's teaching is framed, but also, indeed primarily, in bringing to light the salvific meaning of these propositions for the individual and for humanity. There was a tone to everything they wrote (and said). His argument was how these two may oppose each other, or better yet, complement each other. Even certain conceptions of life coming from the East betray this lack of confidence, denying truth its exclusive character and assuming that truth reveals itself equally in different doctrines, even if they contradict one another. This opened a path which took its rise from ancient traditions but allowed a development satisfying the demands of universal reason. 119 The result is a unique bond between teaching and living which is otherwise unattainable, since what is communicated in catechesis is not a body of conceptual truths, but the mystery of the living God. In a special way philosophy has made this search its own and, with its specific tools and scholarly methods, has articulated this universal human desire. The truths of faith make certain demands which philosophy must respect whenever it engages theology. It recognizes only the utilitarian ends of power and pleasure (n. 47). We call philosophers those who love the wisdom that is creator and mistress of all things, that is knowledge of the Son of God”.36 For Clement, Greek philosophy is not meant in the first place to bolster and complete Christian truth. In consequence, the human spirit is often invaded by a kind of ambiguous thinking which leads it to an ever deepening introversion, locked within the confines of its own immanence without reference of any kind to the transcendent. Col 1:15; 1 Tim 1:17), out of the abundance of his love speaks to men and women as friends (cf. The world and all that happens within it, including history and the fate of peoples, are realities to be observed, analysed and assessed with all the resources of reason, but without faith ever being foreign to the process. What is distinctive in the biblical text is the conviction that there is a profound and indissoluble unity between the knowledge of reason and the knowledge of faith. It deals with the relationship between faith and reason. This was a truth which the holy monks of Christian antiquity understood well when they called Mary “the table at which faith sits in thought”. Against the temptations of fideism, however, it was necessary to stress the unity of truth and thus the positive contribution which rational knowledge can and must make to faith's knowledge: “Even if faith is superior to reason there can never be a true divergence between faith and reason, since the same God who reveals the mysteries and bestows the gift of faith has also placed in the human spirit the light of reason. Jesus Christ took flesh in the “fullness of time” (Gal 4:4); and two thousand years later, I feel bound to restate forcefully that “in Christianity time has a fundamental importance”.9 It is within time that the whole work of creation and salvation comes to light; and it emerges clearly above all that, with the Incarnation of the Son of God, our life is even now a foretaste of the fulfilment of time which is to come (cf. ... We wrote in an earlier blog that the Regina Academies “form students in faith and reason … God alone is the Absolute. The Gospel is not opposed to any culture, as if in engaging a culture the Gospel would seek to strip it of its native riches and force it to adopt forms which are alien to it. When scientists, following their intuition, set out in search of the logical and verifiable explanation of a phenomenon, they are confident from the first that they will find an answer, and they do not give up in the face of setbacks. Recent times have seen the rise to prominence of various doctrines which tend to devalue even the truths which had been judged certain. The preaching of Christ crucified and risen is the reef upon which the link between faith and philosophy can break up, but it is also the reef beyond which the two can set forth upon the boundless ocean of truth. The intellectus fidei, as I have noted, demands the contribution of a philosophy of being which first of all would enable dogmatic theology to perform its functions appropriately. Rather than make use of the human capacity to know the truth, modern philosophy has preferred to accentuate the ways in which this capacity is limited and conditioned. Journeying in search of truth. It should be clear in the light of these reflections why the Magisterium has repeatedly acclaimed the merits of Saint Thomas' thought and made him the guide and model for theological studies. 72. Life in the Spirit leads believers to a freedom and responsibility which surpass the Law. Through philosophy's work, the ability to speculate which is proper to the human intellect produces a rigorous mode of thought; and then in turn, through the logical coherence of the affirmations made and the organic unity of their content, it produces a systematic body of knowledge. Christ is the Way, the Truth and the Life (Jn. The truth communicated in Christ's Revelation is therefore no longer confined to a particular place or culture, but is offered to every man and woman who would welcome it as the word which is the absolutely valid source of meaning for human life. Indeed, to argue according to rigorous rational criteria is to guarantee that the results attained are universally valid. Jn 1:14, 18). It was because of its noble and indispensable contribution that, from the Patristic period onwards, philosophy was called the ancilla theologiae. Rather, it was used in the sense in which Aristotle had spoken of the experimental sciences as “ancillary” to “prima philosophia”. 113 Were this not the case, philosophy and the sciences could not communicate with each other, nor could they find a place in cultures different from those in which they were conceived and developed. 17. Good news! It is this duality alone which allows us to specify correctly the relationship between revealed truth and philosophical learning. Sacred Scripture always assumes that the individual, even if guilty of duplicity and mendacity, can know and grasp the clear and simple truth. The sense that faith and reason are not contradictory, but mutually supportive, is fundamentally lacking in much of modern society, and it needs to be reclaimed. 7.0 CONCLUSION The Fides et Ratio of Pope John Paul II is really an edifying masterpiece which tried all its possible best to stand that relationship between all the issues discussed in it is more beneficiary and supportive. 82. Any number of examples could be found to demonstrate this; but I think immediately of the martyrs, who are the most authentic witnesses to the truth about existence. 58. This is why no historical form of philosophy can legitimately claim to embrace the totality of truth, nor to be the complete explanation of the human being, of the world and of the human being's relationship with God. The fruitfulness of this relationship is confirmed by the experience of great Christian theologians who also distinguished themselves as great philosophers, bequeathing to us writings of such high speculative value as to warrant comparison with the masters of ancient philosophy. Moreover, the objective value of many concepts does not exclude that their meaning is often imperfect. Eph 4:21; Col 1:15-20). Consider, for instance, the disregard of modern thought and culture which has led either to a refusal of any kind of dialogue or to an indiscriminate acceptance of any kind of philosophy. This wisdom comes to know by way of connaturality; it presupposes faith and eventually formulates its right judgement on the basis of the truth of faith itself: “The wisdom named among the gifts of the Holy Spirit is distinct from the wisdom found among the intellectual virtues. 33. 48. He then explains how they compliment and support one another with complete compatibility. Yet closer scrutiny shows that even in the philosophical thinking of those who helped drive faith and reason further apart there are found at times precious and seminal insights which, if pursued and developed with mind and heart rightly tuned, can lead to the discovery of truth's way. It will help lead believers to a stronger conviction that faith grows deeper and more authentic when it is wedded to thought and does not reject it. The Holy Father thus confirms the harmony between the knowledge of faith and the knowledge of reason. The current ferment in philosophy demands of believing philosophers an attentive and competent commitment, able to discern the expectations, the points of openness and the key issues of this historical moment. The mystery of the Incarnation will always remain the central point of reference for an understanding of the enigma of human existence, the created world and God himself. This is the teaching of the Constitution Dei Verbum when it states that “as the centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly progresses towards the fullness of divine truth, until the words of God reach their complete fulfilment in her”.11. Fides et Ratio. From the first pages of his Summa Theologiae,48 Aquinas was keen to show the primacy of the wisdom which is the gift of the Holy Spirit and which opens the way to a knowledge of divine realities. Where might the human being seek the answer to dramatic questions such as pain, the suffering of the innocent and death, if not in the light streaming from the mystery of Christ's Passion, Death and Resurrection? If faith does not think, it is nothing”.95 And again: “If there is no assent, there is no faith, for without assent one does not really believe”.96, CHAPTER VII - CURRENT REQUIREMENTS AND TASKS, The indispensable requirements of the word of God. Its concepts and patterns of thought permit theology to have a logical structure and to be a true science (n. 65). Nor should it be forgotten that the specific contribution of philosophical enquiry enables us to discern in different world-views and different cultures “not what people think but what the objective truth is”.93 It is not an array of human opinions but truth alone which can be of help to theology. 88. Such a ground for understanding and dialogue is all the more vital nowadays, since the most pressing issues facing humanity—ecology, peace and the co-existence of different races and cultures, for instance—may possibly find a solution if there is a clear and honest collaboration between Christians and the followers of other religions and all those who, while not sharing a religious belief, have at heart the renewal of humanity. In my Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, I drew attention to “certain fundamental truths of Catholic doctrine which, in the present circumstances, risk being distorted or denied”.4 In the present Letter, I wish to pursue that reflection by concentrating on the theme of truth itself and on its foundation in relation to faith. Rather, what is sought is the truth of the person—what the person is and what the person reveals from deep within. CHAPTER I - THE REVELATION OF GOD'S WISDOM. Because of its implications for both philosophy and theology, the question of the relationship with cultures calls for particular attention, which cannot however claim to be exhaustive. Fides et Ratio. Fides et Ratio begins by claiming that two wings are needed for the human spirit to ascend to truth. In the light of this text, we reflect further to see how the Gentiles were transformed once they had embraced the faith. It is no accident that this has become pivotal for a philosophy of history which stakes its claim as a new chapter in the human search for truth. 24. John Paul II. The parrhesia of faith must be matched by the boldness of reason. St. Justin and the apologists used philosophy as a "preamble" to the faith (n. 38). The second, which derives from the first, is this: in engaging great cultures for the first time, the Church cannot abandon what she has gained from her inculturation in the world of Greco-Latin thought. Precisely because it is shared in some measure by all, this knowledge should serve as a kind of reference-point for the different philosophical schools. With no less concern it has sought to stress the basic principles of a genuine renewal of philosophical enquiry, indicating as well particular paths to be taken. 103. This nihilism has been justified in a sense by the terrible experience of evil which has marked our age. Schools were, therefore, quite different we see here philosophy 's valid aspiration to postmodern. Modern and contemporary philosophy would not otherwise have suspected it could take ( n. 48.... I do not share our faith faith builds upon and perfects reason encounter and engagement with philosophy was therefore straight-forward! Greek religion, like most cosmic religions, was polytheistic, even if it to. And destiny ( n. 76 ). early community responded to the for... 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