cultural theories of disease causation in nigeria

Moreover, there is a fatality per accident rate which can be 20 times higher than in developed countries (Jacobs and Sayer, 1983). A student project which extracted data from the medical register and outpatient records in Igbo-Ora found that of 501 accidents, 42.7% were trauma from falls and 39.5% were from road traffic accidents. Data were collected opportunistically. The `belief that it is possible to be in charge of one's life' [see Tones et al., p. 13 (Tones et al., 1990)] is a key value of the modern health promotion movement. and Adedewe, N. A. Ayoade, J. Western secular health promoters may need to recognize that some accidents are indeed Acts of God or of gods, `witchcraft', sorcery or are predestined to happen—in other words to accept the reality of a worldview based on another cosmology. Responsible for one admission each were: dog bite, multiple injury, food poisoning, flesh wound, kerosene ingestion and fell on to aluminium. In criminal law, it is defined as the actus reus (an action) from which the specific injury or other effect arose and is combined with … Although a focus on RTAs is essential [by 1982 these accounted for 10% of deaths between the ages of 5 and 44 in 11 developing countries (Jacobs and Sayer, 1983)], for children, the role of domestic accidents is also crucial. Oladepo and Brieger (Oladepo and Brieger, 1986) showed that a third of all accidents on this road involved fatalities, with speeding causing 28.9% and `carelessness' 24% of accidents. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. The positive functions of a fatalistic worldview are seldom mentioned, but, as Abimbola comments, `By shifting the responsibility for human failure or success largely from human beings, this concept frees them from any sense of guilt and dependency which usually causes psychological disturbances' [see Abimbola, p. 34 (Abimbola, 1975)]. This view is at odds with the dominant themes of the modern health promotion movement. PIP: Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Health promotion is therefore faced with a dilemma. In Ademuwagun, A., et al. One attempt to study children's domestic accidents in Igbo-Ora was thwarted by the mothers' view that it was bad luck to discuss such things, but also because it reflected badly on their mothering (W. R. Brieger, pers. Trop Med Int Health. In common with other African systems of belief about disease causation, the Yoruba believe that some diseases (such as malaria) have a simple, natural cause and others have supernatural causes (Ayoade, 1979; Oladepo and Sridhar, 1987; Ramakrishna et al., 1989; Moloye, 1992). Practices and beliefs of traditional birth attendants: lessons for obstetrics in the north? (Sahdev et al., 1994) have shown that after an accident, lack of pre-hospital care, delays in transportation and failure to diagnose correctly lead to a higher fatality rate. The second … Bezzaoucha, A., Dekkar, N. and Ladjali, M. (. USA.gov. The UK Department of Health (Department of Health, 1992) thus comments, `In theory at least, all accidents are preventable'. The babalawo might also be consulted after an accident to find out whether the person felt to have caused the accident or who had been its victim had done anything `wrong'. Dixey, R. A. The practice of consulting a babalawo is widespread and approximately 160 such Ifa priests live in Igbo-Ora. Discussion of preventative actions need to incorporate a wider range of factors, such as cultural beliefs and understanding, and accidents need to be placed within a social, economic and political context. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago. Failure to entice people to become involved is often seen as a reason not to pursue particular programmes, sometimes to the detriment of that community. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! They may, in fact, force a reconsideration of accepted beliefs and principles. _Hill's Criteria of Causation Indeed, some developing countries have questioned improving health care, education and other services, when, `All these and other intended programmes aimed at making life easy for the people can be rendered meaningless if the people for which the facilities are meant are regularly killed or incapacitated through unnecessary accidents' [see Ogunsanya, p. 262 (Ogunsanya, 1991)]. Each person has an ori (loosely translated as `head' but also as destiny), chosen for him or her. Udomah and Edafiogho, p. 94 (Udomah and Edafiogho, 1990), say of police records in Nigeria, `Regrettably, published statistics may be unsatisfactory from the research standpoint because of incomplete reporting, inaccuracies, varying definitions of accident and injury, and, perhaps most significantly, the production of data for highly specific purposes'. (1991) Safety and accident preventative measures—the experience of the Bendel Line. (eds), African Therapeutic Systems. More research could usefully be carried out on the cultural significance of roads. Jimoh's study (Jimoh, 1985) of attitudes to death of 245 Nigerian university students show that the majority thought that death, including after an injury, was caused by the `work of wicked people', the gods or other forces. Notwithstanding these difficulties, what data there are indicate a worsening situation and an increasing fatality rate per accident (Asogwa, 1992; Oluwasanmi, 1993). Taken verbatim from the same accident, such research needs to be acceptable. Because vehicles are no longer maintained to satisfactory standards, roads are not maintained, more corruption exists (.! Safety raises a number of accidents from available records are noted and people 's ideas accident., typically an injury simply to ignore it it would be unethical to ignore them such Ifa live! 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